The Facts about ADHD


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder observed in both children and adults. Its major characteristics include:


- Deficits in behavioural inhibition, poor impulse control or difficulties with delayed gratification. This is noted in comments such as the student acts without thinking, interrupts others or doesn't wait their turn.


-Excessive activity that is irrelevant to task demands or activity that is not in conjunction with situational demands. This is observed in  students' overt behaviours such as fidgeting, restlessness and various other motor movements.


-Difficulties with sustained attention. This is evident in situations in which a student fails to complete assigned tasks, shifts their attention from one task to another or fails to return to the initial task. 


Other characteristics of ADHD include:


-Poor working memory

-Developmental delays of internal language and rule following behaviour

-Poor emotional regulation

-Diminished problem solving ability and flexibility in reaching long-term goals

-Extreme variability in work performance

The Facts about Learning Disabilities

-Learning Disabilities are not due to deficits in thinking and reasoning. Individuals with Learning Disabilities have at least Average intelligence.


-Learning Disabilities have a genetic component and are due to specific processing deficits affecting various areas of learning.


-Learning Disabilities are lifelong. The way a learning disability presents itself over the course of an individual's life may change but the disability remains. For example, a student may learn reading strategies to improve decoding but reading fluency or comprehension may produce particular learning challenges.


-Learning Disabilities are diagnosed by a trained psychologist through the course of a psycho-educational assessment.


-Hearing, sight and motor disabilities are not Learning Disabilities.